|Research Article:||Kidney Function Assessment in African American Patients: A Narrative Review for Pharmacists|
|Author:||Dhakrit Rungkitwattanakul, Weerachai Chaijamorn, Eunice Han and Mohammed Aldhaeefi|
|Department|Faculty:||Faculty of Pharmacy, Siam University, Bangkok 10160|
|Published||MDPI, Volume 10, Issue 3, 20 June 2022, Pages 1-10|
Rungkitwattanakul D., Chaijamorn W., Han, Eunice and Aldhaeefi, Mohammed. (2022). Kidney function assessment in African American patients: A narrative review for pharmacists. MDPI, 10(3), 1-10.
Recent recognitions of longstanding societal inequity in kidney function assessments have prompted the call to eliminate race as part of the algorithm to assess estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Previous equations for eGFR estimation adopted race as part of the calculation. Incorporating race within eGFR equations results in overestimating and underestimating Black and nonblack patients, respectively. The inclusion of race is controversial. In September 2021, the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) combined task force recommended estimating the kidney function without using a race variable. The task force endorsed race-free creatinine-cystatin C equations to be more accurate than the creatinine-only equations. Before the application of NKF-ASN revised recommendations, major healthcare disparities influenced daily clinical practice. Those disparities include the delay in initiating medications that have reanl or cardio-protective effects, such as sodium-glucose cotransporter–2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Clinical judgment should be employed when dose adjusting medications. Combining the eGFR with other clinical assessment tools such as urinary output, the expanded use of confirmatory tests, and the eGFR trend is suggested for a better kidney function assessment. Additionally, creatinine-cystatin C is recommended when feasible, and wheninstitutions have the laboratory abilities.
Keywords: glomerular filtration rate, kidney function, race, African American, black, equations.
Kidney Function Assessment in African American Patients: A Narrative Review for Pharmacists
Faculty of Pharmacy, Siam University, Bangkok, Thailand